Diabetes is a disease a person gets when blood glucose, aka blood sugar, is very high. Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that leads to increased sugar in the blood. The hormone called insulin carries the sugar from our blood to the cells to consume as energy. When insulin is deficient in the body or the body cannot use the insulin properly, diabetes is triggered. Typically, the lack of release of insulin by the pancreas results in diabetes.
There are different types of diabetes:
- Type 1 Diabetes
- Type 2 Diabetes.
- Gestation diabetic
Development of the Problem of Insulin:
It is the prime cause of diabetes. Insulin acts as a catalyst for glucose from a person’s food to the human cell. A person gets diabetes when there is insulin insufficiency. Sometimes, the body may not produce sufficient insulin because of genetic reasons or metabolic reasons. Often, the body tries to make extra insulin to channelize this excess blood glucose. And when the pancreas cannot make this extra insulin, then the blood glucose starts writing, resulting in a rising sugar level.
Type 1 Diabetes:
It is known as juvenile diabetes. When the immune system attacks the pancreatic cell that causes diabetes, in this diabetes, the person becomes insulin-dependant totally. To fight this type of diabetes, consumption or intake of insulin is a must.
Type 2 Diabetes:
Type 2 Diabetes has its way of harming the health and condition of the elders. With the damage made towards the pancreas and lesser generation of insulin, type 2 diabetes is responsible for the maximum amount of damage to the organ and creating situations for lowering the immunity and conditions. The consumption of insulin is dependent solely on the sugar level.
Risk factors for Different Types of Diabetes:
Although the exact cause of Type 1 Diabetes is unknown, certain factors can increase the risk of type 1 diabetes. Family history plays a crucial role in Type 1 diabetes. If a parent or a sibling has type 1 diabetes in the family, it increases the risk for diabetes in others. Another risk factor is antibodies generated by the immune cells, which leads to type 1 diabetes. However, not everyone who has these autoantibodies develops Type 1.
Excess body weight resists cells to insulin which increases the sugar level in the body.
Inactivity: Activity helps to control weight, helps to use up the glucose, and forces the cells to become very sensitive to insulin.
Inactivity leads to high blood sugar because of the lack of blood sugar.
Age: As one gets older, the chance of Type 2 diabetes increases. Moreover, high blood pressure, high cholesterol in the blood, and PCOS may increase Type II diabetes.
Women with pregnancy sometimes develop Gestational Diabetes. The risk factor includes:
- Age: Older than 25 years
- Family history of Type 2 diabetes
- Overweight during pregnancy.
Symptoms of Diabetes:
The symptoms vary following the increased level of blood sugar.
- Pre-diabetic stage: In the pre-diabetic stage, people may experience symptoms and may not experience symptoms.
- Type 1: In type 1 diabetes, the symptoms are predominant.
- Type 2: The symptoms they get if the sugar level rises.
Some of the signs are frequent thirst, frequent urination, extreme craving for sweet food, rapid weight loss, weakness and fatigue, irritation, uncleared or blood vision, recurring bacterial infection, and tendencies of ulcers not to heal.
Complication Due to Diabetes
Increased or elevated sugar damages organs and tissues in the wrong way. People with diabetes can develop heart disease, heart attack, stroke, neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, hearing loss, foot infection, fungal and bacterial infections, dementia, etc. During pregnancy, gestational diabetes increases the risk for premature birth, heavy birth weight of the child, stillbirth, etc.
Treatment for Diabetes
For type -I diabetes, insulin therapy is the best way to control sugar. There are various types of insulin used, such as rapid-acting insulin, short-acting insulin, intermediate-acting insulin, and long-lasting insulin. In the case of Type -II diabetes, medicine and exercises are used to lower blood sugar. Medications like alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, biguanides, DPP-4 inhibitors, meglitinides, glucagon-like peptides, SGLT 2 inhibitors are used to treat diabetes. For gestational diabetes, significant dietary changes and exercises are in use to control sugar.
Diabetes and Diets
Diet has a vital role to play in controlling sugar. A balanced diet is essential for a sugar patient. Starting from complex carbohydrates, fruits, whole grains, vegetables, lean protein, healthy fats are necessary for reasonable diabetic control.
Blood and urine tests generally determine blood sugar in a human being. The following tests can be performed to determine
A. The Fasting Plasma Glucose tests blood sugar after you have fasted for eight hours. And Post Prandial Sugar is measured after two hours from taking food.
B. HbA1C gives you an average sugar level for the past three months.
C. Another test called the Glucose Tolerance test measures whether a person has diabetes or not.
Although Type-I and Type-II diabetes are many things in common, there are some differences between Type-I and Type-II diabetes. The difference between Type-I and Type-II diabetes is in basis on specific fundamental issues. Which is worst, Type-I or Type-II, depends upon the acuteness of the disease. The essential difference between the two is that in Type-I Diabetes, the cells in the pancreas are damaged.
As a result, it can not produce insulin. But in Type-II Diabetes, the body cannot make enough insulin due to certain other factors. In Type-I Diabetes, the symptom appears very quickly, but in Type-II Diabetes, it seems gradual. In Type-I Diabetes, management takes place through insulin. And in Type-II, control is done through direct exercise and medicines. Unfortunately, there is no cure for Type-I Diabetes related to autoimmune conditions. Still, Type-II Diabetes is preventable if we can maintain our body insulin level with proper metabolism. Type-I Diabetes is not associated with lifestyle as it is more genetic, but Type-II Diabetes is essentially dependant on metabolism.
Which is worst Type-I or Type-II Diabetes has a fragile line. But out of the two, Type-I Diabetes is problematic because it occurs early and can not prevent itself because it bases itself on the autoimmune antibody, which is very difficult to control.
To treat oneself with diabetes, you can counter diabetes using the Ask Vaidya online consultation app. It is an online doctor appointment app, and the consultation fees will be within the budget. However, one should not ignore diabetes at all. It must be recognized and to be treated at the right point in time.