Female Infertility: Causes, Risk Factors & Prevention

A female infertility can result from hormonal or physical problems, even environmental or lifestyle factors.

A recent study shows that approximately 8% of married women have infertility in India and West Bengal tops the list. Meghalaya holds the lowest ranking card.

Recent case studies depict that nearly a third of the time, it is always the infertile woman, and one-third of the time, it is the man. At times, no particular causes are found.

According to the World Health Organisation, the most common causes of female infertility are-

  • Ovulatory disorders 25%
  • Endometriosis-15%
  • Pelvic Adhesions-12%
  • Tubal Blockage-11%
  • Other tubal/uterine abnormalities -11%
  • Hyperprolactinemia-7%


From a very young age, the fertility of a female depends on the menstrual cycle. A menstrual cycle that is too long or too short that is 35 days or more or less than 21 days, respectively, can result in premature infertility with the sheer lack of ovulation.

Causes of Ovulation Disorder

  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) – is a primary hormonal disorder resulting in ovulation problems. In addition, insulin resistance for obesity can be one of the causes of polycystic ovary syndrome. Nowadays, 1 out of 5 females is diagnosed with this problem.
  • Hypothalamic Dysfunction – follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormones (LH) are responsible for ovulation each month for staff. Still, if a woman suffers from over or underweight, too much stress or excessive physical pressure may affect the production of follicle-stimulating hormone and utilizing hormone. Thereby resulting in irregular or absent periods.
  • Premature Ovarian Failure – premature loss of eggs from your ovary called primary ovarian insufficiency. It is seen in women under the age of 40 with the inability to produce eggs anymore.
  • Too much prolactin- Too much release of prolactin thereby decreases estrogen production, causing ovulation disorder.

Damaged Fallopian Tubes

During copulation, blocked or damaged fallopian tubes can block the way for the sperm to move any further, thereby leading to infertility causes of fallopian tube blockage are-

Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection in the uterus or the fallopian tube due to any sexually transmitted infection.

Any abdominal or pelvic surgery because the egg gets implanted in the fallopian tube and not in the uterus is another cause of a damaged fallopian tube.

Risk Factors Causing Infertility

Age – women in the mid 30’s face a more significant loss of follicles, thereby resulting in poor quality eggs. In addition, this loss of follicle increases the tendency of miscarriage.

Smoking – The intake of smoke prematurely depletes ovaries and eggs, causing damage to the cervix and fallopian tube. It leads to miscarriage tendency and ectopic pregnancy.

Weight – Females being overweight or underweight affects regular ovulation. Weight factors sometimes result in PCOS or PCOD, which directly or indirectly results in infertility.

Sexual History – Unprotected sexual intercourse with multiple partners increases the risk of any sexually transmitted infections that may later be the reason for infertility.

Alcohol consumption – Regular alcohol consumption may prove to be harmful and may result in infertility.

Prevention to Infertility

Proper Body Weight – Being overweight or underweight may increase the risk of ovulation disorder. Therefore, one must keep her body active enough by working out and maintaining a proper weight to avoid problems with ovulation. On the other hand, even a stressful workout can decrease ovulation, so maintain everything properly.

Say no to Smoking – if you are a chain smoker, say no to it today itself. Tobacco has a massive impact on the infertility problems of females. Apart from that, it may affect your daily health.

No Alcohol Consumption – Alcohol consumption daily may result in loss of follicles, proving harmful to fertility.

Low Stress – a recent study has shown that stress can be harmful, resulting in poor quality of follicles. Reduce your stress by doing meditation or any Stress-reducing yoga.

Less Caffeine Consumption – Research and study have proved that coffee consumption for more than three to four cups every day is harmful to fertility. If you plan to be pregnant, you have to cut off your caffeine consumption to just one to two cups daily. 

Female infertility treatment depends on the cause of infertility. Your treatment depends upon your age, the period of your infertility, and of course, your personal preferences. Treatments based on your financial condition are also an option for you to hop into. Sometimes it also involves physical and psychological and time dedication.

Infertility treatments can be done through drugs or surgery depends on the choice of the women. But on the other hand, drugs do have a negative impact to offer. Drugs may lead to pregnancy with multiple, with significant risk at premature labour. Not ignoring painful, large, and swollen ovaries, which is ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), may also be caused by the risk of long-term ovarian tumours.

Surgery involves hysteroscopy and tubal, thereby causing the removal of pelvic addition and fallopian tube blockage, respectively. Therefore, it is considered a helpful be of female infertility treatment rather than drugs.

Want some better guidance and instructions? Then, come and visit the Ask Vaidya Online Consultation App for patients and Ask Doctors Online. It will help you take better care of yourself.

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