Dialysis is a machinery procedure of filtering blood when the kidneys are not able to perform the same function.
The main function of the kidneys is to filter blood and when they could not perform it, there is a build-up of waste products and fluid in the body. When the same reaches a level where the person starts to fall ill, he/she requires dialysis.
There are two types of dialysis – hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis
The procedure could be performed at a hospital or at home too. It requires an artificial machine or artificial kidney (dialyzer) and a dialysis machine. The blood is made to pass through vascular access into the machine which filters it via the dialyzer. After filtering the blood is passed back to the body.
The access is made to reach the blood for hemodialysis. The access could:
- Fistula – made by connecting an artery and a vein in an arm
- Catheter – it is a soft tube that is placed in a large vein
- Graft – made using a piece of soft tube to join a vein and an artery in the arm
In this kind of dialysis, the abdominal tissues act as a filter. The belly is naturally lined with a membrane namely peritoneal membrane which is used in the procedure for filtration of waste products and fluid from the body.
During the dialysis, a fluid which is a cleanser is placed through a catheter into the abdomen. The membrane acts as a filter between the fluid and the blood and removes all the waste products from the body.